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Your Brain Needs a Break from Work

Your Brain Needs a Break from Work

/ 13 min read

Have you ever found yourself replaying a tough work conversation in your head while trying to enjoy dinner with your family? Or perhaps you’ve caught yourself brainstorming solutions to a work problem during your weekend hike? If so, you’re not alone. Many of us struggle to “switch off” from work during our leisure time. But what impact does this really have on our well-being? A fascinating new study sheds light on this common experience and offers valuable insights for both employees and managers.

Researchers from the University of Mannheim in Germany set out to understand how our inability to detach from work affects our thoughts and emotions. They conducted a comprehensive study involving 243 employees across various industries. Over two weeks, participants completed daily surveys about their work experiences, thoughts, and feelings at different times of the day. This approach allowed the researchers to capture the day-to-day fluctuations in people’s experiences.

tl; dr — The Key Findings

  1. Not All Thoughts Are Created Equal — The study found that when we don’t detach from work, we tend to engage in different types of work-related thoughts. These can be either backward-looking (thinking about what has happened) or forward-looking (thinking about future actions). Importantly, these thoughts can focus on either negative or positive aspects of work.
  2. The Power of Negative Thinking — While both positive and negative work-related thoughts occurred when people didn’t detach, it was the negative, backward-looking thoughts (what the researchers call “backward-oriented negative rumination”) that had the most significant impact. These thoughts were strongly linked to experiencing negative emotions the next day, both in the morning and at the end of the workday.
  3. Personality Matters — The study also found that our personality traits play a role in how we respond to lack of detachment. People high in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) were more likely to engage in negative thought patterns when they didn’t detach from work. On the flip side, extraverted individuals were more prone to positive work-related thoughts during leisure time.
  4. Positive Thoughts Don’t Pack the Same Punch — Interestingly, positive work-related thoughts, whether backward or forward-looking, didn’t seem to have a significant impact on next-day positive emotions when considered alongside negative thoughts. This suggests that the negative effects of not detaching outweigh any potential positive effects.

Now let’s see each point in detail.

Not All Thoughts Are Created Equal

When we fail to detach from work, our minds often continue to process work-related information. However, these thoughts aren’t all the same. The study identified four distinct types of work-related thoughts:

  1. Backward-looking negative thoughts: Example: Replaying a conflict with a coworker or dwelling on a mistake you made during a presentation.
  2. Backward-looking positive thoughts: Example: Savoring praise from your boss or reflecting on a successful project completion.
  3. Forward-looking negative thoughts: Example: Worrying about an upcoming deadline or anticipating challenges in a future meeting.
  4. Forward-looking positive thoughts: Example: Planning how to implement a new idea or visualizing success in an upcoming presentation.

Understanding these different thought patterns is crucial because they can affect us differently. Here’s how you can use this knowledge:

Practical Advice:

  1. Thought awareness: Start by simply noticing your work-related thoughts during leisure time. Try keeping a thought journal for a week, jotting down when work thoughts occur and what type they are.
  2. Redirect negative backward-looking thoughts: If you catch yourself ruminating on past negative events, try the “Stop and Redirect” technique. Say “stop” out loud, then consciously shift your focus to something in your present environment or a pleasant memory.
  3. Harness positive forward-looking thoughts: If you find yourself having productive, positive thoughts about future work, set a timer for 10 minutes to capture these ideas, then deliberately switch to a non-work activity.
  4. Balance your “thought diet”: Aim for a healthy mix of thought types. If you notice you’re prone to one type (e.g., always worrying about future work), consciously try to introduce other perspectives.
  5. Create transition rituals: Develop a small ritual to mark the end of your workday, like changing clothes or taking a short walk. This can help signal to your brain that it’s time to shift away from work thoughts.
  6. Practice mindfulness: Regular mindfulness exercises can help you become more aware of your thoughts and better at redirecting them when necessary.

Remember, the goal isn’t to never think about work outside of work hours. Rather, it’s to be more intentional about when and how you engage with work-related thoughts, ensuring they don’t dominate your leisure time and negatively impact your well-being.

The Power of Negative Thinking

The study found that both positive and negative work-related thoughts occurred when people failed to detach from work during their leisure time. However, it was the negative, backward-looking thoughts (what the researchers call “backward-oriented negative rumination”) that had the most significant impact on employees’ well-being.

Backward-oriented negative rumination involves dwelling on past negative work experiences, such as a difficult interaction with a colleague or a missed deadline. The study showed that engaging in this type of thinking during leisure time was strongly linked to experiencing negative emotions the next day, both in the morning and at the end of the workday.

For example, let’s say an employee had a disagreement with their supervisor before leaving work. If they continue to replay the conversation in their mind and dwell on the negative aspects of the interaction during their evening, they are more likely to wake up the next morning feeling frustrated, anxious, or even angry. These negative emotions can persist throughout the workday, affecting their mood, productivity, and interactions with others.

Practical Advice for Employees:

  • Recognize when you’re engaging in negative rumination and actively try to redirect your thoughts to more positive or neutral topics.
  • Practice mindfulness or relaxation techniques to help you stay present and avoid dwelling on past negative experiences.
  • Engage in activities that you enjoy and find fulfilling during your leisure time to help distract you from work-related thoughts.

Practical Advice for Managers:

  • Be aware of the potential impact of negative interactions or experiences at work on your team members’ well-being.
  • Encourage open communication and work to resolve conflicts or issues in a timely and constructive manner.
  • Model healthy work-life balance behaviors and avoid sending non-urgent work-related communications outside of work hours.

By understanding the power of negative thinking and taking steps to mitigate its impact, both employees and managers can contribute to a more positive and supportive work environment.

Personality Matters

This finding underscores the importance of individual differences in how we process work-related thoughts during our leisure time. It’s a reminder that one-size-fits-all approaches to work-life balance may not be effective for everyone. Understanding Neuroticism and Extraversion:

Neuroticism: This trait is characterized by a tendency towards anxiety, self-doubt, and negative emotions. Example: Sarah often worries about her job performance and tends to interpret ambiguous feedback negatively.

Extraversion: This trait is associated with sociability, assertiveness, and a tendency towards positive emotions. Example: Mike enjoys networking events and often leaves work feeling energized by his interactions.

Individuals high in neuroticism:

  • More likely to ruminate on negative work events
  • May struggle more to detach from work-related worries
  • Could experience more intense negative emotions as a result of work thoughts

Extraverted individuals:

  • More likely to focus on positive aspects of work during leisure time
  • May find it easier to reframe negative experiences positively
  • Could experience a boost in mood from work-related thoughts

Practical Advice:


  • Take a personality test to better understand your traits
  • Reflect on how your personality might influence your work-related thoughts

For Those High in Neuroticism

  • Practice self-compassion exercises to counteract self-criticism
  • Use structured problem-solving techniques to address worries productively
  • Consider mindfulness meditation to help manage anxiety

For Extraverts

  • Channel your tendency for positive work thoughts into structured planning sessions
  • Be mindful of not over-committing due to enthusiasm
  • Use your social nature to build a strong support network for work-related discussions

Tailored Detachment Strategies

  • If you’re high in neuroticism, you might benefit from more structured detachment activities like scheduled leisure time or hobby classes
  • If you’re more extraverted, social activities or team sports might help you detach more effectively

Communication with managers

  • Discuss your working style preferences with your manager
  • If you tend towards neuroticism, you might benefit from more frequent check-ins or clearer expectations
  • If you’re more extraverted, you might thrive with more collaborative projects or client-facing roles

Balanced team building for managers:

  • Recognize the strengths and challenges of different personality types in your team
  • Pair employees with complementary traits for projects when possible
  • Offer a variety of team-building and stress-management activities to cater to different personalities

Personalized Self-Care:

  • For those high in neuroticism: Relaxation techniques, journaling, or cognitive-behavioral exercises might be particularly beneficial
  • For extraverts: Engaging in group exercise classes or joining professional networking groups could serve as effective ways to recharge

Remember, personality traits exist on a spectrum, and most people have a mix of different traits. The key is to understand your own tendencies and develop strategies that work best for you. By recognizing how your personality influences your work-related thoughts, you can create more effective strategies for detaching from work and maintaining a healthy work-life balance.

Positive Thoughts Don’t Pack the Same Punch

One intriguing finding from the study is that positive work-related thoughts, whether backward-looking (savoring past successes) or forward-looking (setting new goals), didn’t seem to have a significant impact on next-day positive emotions when considered alongside negative thoughts. This suggests that the negative effects of not detaching from work can outweigh any potential positive effects.

In other words, even if an employee spends their evening reflecting on a job well done or planning for future achievements, the presence of negative rumination can overshadow these positive thoughts and lead to a net negative impact on their emotional state the following day.

This finding underscores the importance of not only promoting positive work-related experiences but also actively working to reduce negative rumination and foster complete detachment from work during leisure time.

Practical Advice for Employees:

  • Don’t rely solely on positive work-related thoughts to counteract the negative impact of failing to detach from work.
  • Prioritize activities and strategies that help you fully disconnect from work, such as engaging in hobbies, spending time with friends and family, or practicing relaxation techniques.
  • If you find yourself experiencing persistent negative thoughts related to work, consider seeking support from a mental health professional or employee assistance program.

Practical Advice for Managers:

  • Recognize that even employees who seem to have a positive outlook may be struggling with the negative impact of failing to detach from work.
  • Foster a work culture that prioritizes work-life balance and encourages employees to fully disconnect during their leisure time.
  • Provide resources and support for employees to manage stress and develop healthy coping mechanisms, such as mindfulness training or access to counseling services.

By acknowledging that positive work-related thoughts may not be enough to counteract the negative effects of failing to detach, employees and managers can focus on developing strategies that promote complete disconnection from work during leisure time, ultimately leading to better emotional well-being and job performance.

Action Items for Managers and Employees

This research highlights the importance of truly disconnecting from work during our off-hours. While it might seem productive to keep mulling over work issues, it can actually set us up for a more negative emotional state the next day. Failing to detach from work, particularly from negative experiences, can lead to rumination and negative emotions that spill over into the next workday, affecting our well-being and performance.

Here are some practical takeaways:

For Employees:

  1. Prioritize activities that help you mentally disconnect from work, especially if you’ve had a challenging day. Engage in hobbies, spend time with loved ones, or pursue interests that have nothing to do with your job.
  2. If you find yourself dwelling on negative work events, try to redirect your thoughts to non-work-related topics. Practice mindfulness or engage in activities that require your full attention to break the cycle of rumination.
  3. Be aware that personality traits might influence your tendency to detach. If you’re prone to worry or have a high level of neuroticism, you might need to make a more conscious effort to disconnect from work and develop coping strategies.
  4. Create a Transition Ritual: Develop a short end-of-day ritual to mentally close out work, such as writing down your top three accomplishments and top three priorities for tomorrow.
  5. Use Technology Mindfully:
    • Set up separate work and personal profiles on your devices.
    • Use app blockers to limit access to work-related apps during leisure hours.
  6. Mindful Appreciation: Instead of dwelling on positive work events, try a quick gratitude exercise at the end of your workday to acknowledge good things that happened. This allows you to recognize positives without carrying them into your leisure time.
  7. Cultivate Non-Work Sources of Positivity: Invest time in hobbies, relationships, and personal goals that bring you joy and fulfillment outside of work. This can help reduce the reliance on work for positive emotions.

For Managers:

  1. Encourage a culture where “switching off” after work is respected and valued. Lead by example and avoid sending non-urgent work-related communications outside of work hours.

  2. Be mindful of how your communications outside of work hours might impact your team’s ability to detach. Consider using tools like email schedulers or setting clear expectations about response times to support your team’s work-life balance.

  3. Consider providing resources or training on effective detachment strategies as part of your wellness initiatives. This can include workshops on stress management, mindfulness, or setting healthy boundaries between work and personal life.

  4. Lead by Example: Demonstrate good detachment practices yourself, such as not sending emails outside of work hours or taking visible breaks during the day. Share your own strategies for work-life balance with your team.

  5. Implement “No-Meeting” Days: Designate one day a week as meeting-free to allow employees uninterrupted focus time and reduce work spillover.

  6. Encourage Use of Vacation Time:

    • Actively encourage employees to use their full vacation allowance.
    • Create a coverage system so employees feel comfortable taking time off.
  7. Promote Flexible Working Hours: Where possible, allow flexible start and end times to accommodate different personal schedules and peak productivity hours.

  8. Create a “Right to Disconnect” Policy:

    • Establish clear guidelines about after-hours communication expectations.
    • Consider implementing technology that delays email delivery outside of work hours.
  9. Foster a Culture of Boundaries: Respect and reinforce individual boundaries, such as not contacting employees who are on vacation unless absolutely necessary.

  10. Implement “Focus Time”: Designate periods where employees are encouraged to turn off notifications and focus deeply on tasks, reducing the need to catch up after hours.

  11. Create Physical Detachment Spaces: If possible, design break areas in the office that are work-free zones, encouraging mental breaks during the day.

  12. Recognize Detachment Efforts: Acknowledge and praise employees who maintain healthy work-life boundaries, making it a valued part of your team culture. Create opportunities for team members to share their non-work interests, reinforcing the importance of a full life outside of work.

Remember, giving your mind a true break from work isn’t just about feeling good—it’s about setting yourself up for a more positive and productive next day. By prioritizing detachment and supporting your team in doing the same, you can foster a healthier, more resilient workforce.

So the next time you’re tempted to check that work email during dinner or spend your evening worrying about a project, consider whether it’s really worth the potential cost to your well-being. Make a conscious choice to disconnect, recharge, and come back to work with a fresh perspective.